A. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE.
As per 1991 Census, the total population of the district was 38,41,396 which has increased to 42,16,268 as per the census of India 2001. Chennai district accounts for 6.8 per cent of the total population of 6,21,10,839 of the state. Male population constitutes 21,61,605 which accounts for 51.3 percent of the total population of the district and female population constitutes 20,54,663 accounting for 48.7 percent of the total population of the district. It ranks 2nd among the districts of Tamil Nadu in population, top ranked being Coimbatore district with a population of 42.24 lakhs.
As per the census of India 2001, Chennai district is the densest district with 24,231 persons per sq. km as against the State’s population density of 478 persons per sq. km. According to 1991 census the population density of the district was 22,077 persons as against the state average of 429 persons per Sq. km. There is 9.76 per cent growth rate in the density of population during the period from 1991-2001 in Chennai district. This is mainly due to migration of rural population of the State to the urban area and also people migrated from other States of the country in search of employment, business and better amenities. The density of population of the country is 324 persons per sq. km as per the census of 2001, which is lesser than the Taminadu State average of 478 persons per Sq. km.
During the decade 1971-81 population increased by 27.35 percent. But the decadal growth rate during 1981-91 reduced to 17.24. The growth rate of population has been further reduced to 9.76 percent during 1991-2001. This
reduction in growth rate is due to the Birth Control Measures taken by the State and Central governments from time to time. The Decennial growth of population in the district during last three decades is given below:
There are 1230 slums in Chennai district covering 2,96,012 households. The total slum population is 18.03 lakhs and the size of the household is 4.5 numbers. In Chennai district slum are coming up in river banks, roadside, public lands etc. Percentage of slum population to the city population is 27.3 percent
Demographic profile of Chennai district is given in the following table :-
Source:Census India 2001
As per 2001 census literate accounts for 30.08 lakhs in Chennai district. Out of this male literate accounted for 16.7 lakhs and female literate 14.08 lakhs. The literacy rate for Chennai in 2001 has decreased to 80.14% from 81.6% returned in the 1991 Census. Among the males 84.71 percent are literate whereas among the females the rate of literacy is 75.32 percent only. The corresponding ratios in 1991 were 87.86 percent for males and 74.87 percent for females respectively.
According to 1991 Census work force constitutes 30.5 percent of total population and non-workers constitute 69.5 percent. Of the total workers 86.5 percent are male and only 13.5 percent are female. Category-wise workers and non-workers along with percentage to total workers are given in the following table :-
B. MATERIAL RESOURCES.
Cattle farming, sheep rearing and poultry farming are subsidiary occupation only for a limited household due to non-availability of space. The detail of the bovine population in the district is given in the following table: -
Source:Live Stock census 1997
There are only four milk dairies in the district. Milk production during flush season is 15.77 LLPD and leans season is 13.77 LLPD. Not even a single chilling plant is working in the district. But there are chilling and milk processing plant in the neighbouring districts of Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. It is understood that 80% of the milk consumption in this district is transported from the neighbouring districts like Kancheepuram, Thiruvallur, Thiruvanamalai and Vellore. There is very little scope for development of animal husbandry in Chennai district due to lack of space for implementing fodder development scheme, gracing land and space for shelter.
Poultry population of the district is 98,302 as per 1997 census and the same is now estimated to be around 1.2 lakhs. TAPCO is having a feed mixing plant at Nandanam with marketing unit at Chennai. As such quality feed does not face any problem.
Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Services University has a Research Station at Nandanam that imparts training for poultry development. Two major problems facing poultry farming in the city is lack of space, high feed cost and unremunerative egg prices. Nearly 70% of the total cost of poultry farming is towards feed cost.
Taking into consideration the above factors it is profitable to establish chicken stalls, egg business in Chennai, since broiler chicken and eggs coming from the neighbouring districts like Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur to the Chennai City is sufficient to cater to the needs of the city dwellers.
The coastal length of the district is 22 km. Coastal area of the district is one of the major fishing center in Tamilnadu. Fisheries are important allied activities which provides gainful employment and sustainable income to people living in and around coastal areas of the city. This sector can be broadly divided into two sector viz.-inland fisheries and marine fisheries.